Agro-chemical Residue Contamination Profile of Rice-field Mosquito Larval Habitats and Effects on Activities of Insecticide Resistance Marker-Enzymes in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in an Urban Area of North-central Nigeria  

Israel Kayode Olayemi , Muhammed Isah , Joshua Omoniyi Kolawole Abioye , Azubuike Christian Ukubuiwe
Author    Correspondence author
Molecular Entomology, 2019, Vol. 10, No.   
Received: 01 Jan., 1970    Accepted: 01 Jan., 1970    Published: 10 Apr., 2019
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The ever increasing farming activities and use of synthetic insecticide to control weeds and insects has created multifaceted ecological problem in Minna. These include advent of species of mosquitoes that are resistant to insecticides as well as high insecticide residue in the environment. During this study (June – September, 2017), occurrence and distribution of agro-chemicals in rice farms and level of resistance enzyme in Culex quinquefasciatus were studied. Soil were collected from rice farms where agro-chemicals are used and not used (Control) and subjected to Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectometry (GCMS) analysis. Standard WHO methods were adapted to determine the specific activities of insecticides detoxifying enzymes; esterase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The finding of the study established that the bulk of insecticide residue in the soil extracts from rice farm are carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphate and pyrethroids. GCMS analysis revealed organophosphate (monocrotophos) and carbamates (bendiocarb) were higher in abundance. The study also established significant difference in enzyme levels in the mosquitoes. The study demonstrated that pre-exposure of mosquito larvae to agro-chemicals used in farmlands (rice farmlands) can lead to development of cross-resistance to public health insecticides.
Cross-resistance; Enzymes; Susceptibility; Minna

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Molecular Entomology
• Volume 10
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. Israel Olayemi
. Muhammed Isah
. Joshua Abioye
. Azubuike Ukubuiwe
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